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14th International Conference on Genetics and Genetic Disorders, will be organized around the theme “Genetic Engineering & Gene Therapy-Sharing Discoveries of the Future Human Genome”
Euro Genetics-2023 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Euro Genetics-2023
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It is a sub-field of biology that addresses how differences in the structures or expression of DNA molecules manifests as variation among organisms. Molecular genetics often applies an "investigative approach" to determine the structure and/or function of genes in an organism's genome using genetic screens. The field of study is based on the merging of several sub-fields in biology: classical Mendelian inheritance, cellular biology, molecular biology, biochemistry, and biotechnology. Researchers search for mutations in a gene or induce mutations in a gene to link a gene sequence to a specific phenotype. Molecular genetics is a powerful methodology for linking mutations to genetic conditions that may aid the search for treatments/cures for various genetics diseases.
The field of molecular biology studies macromolecules and the macromolecular mechanisms found in living things, such as the molecular nature of the gene and its mechanisms of gene replication, mutation, and expression. Given the fundamental importance of these macromolecular mechanisms throughout the history of molecular biology, a philosophical focus on the concept of a mechanism generates the clearest picture of molecular biology’s history, concepts, and case studies utilized by philosophers of science.
Human gene therapy seeks to modify or manipulate the expression of a gene or to alter the biological properties of living cells for therapeutic use.
Gene therapy is a technique that modifies a person’s genes to treat or cure disease. Gene therapies can work by several mechanisms:
- Replacing a disease-causing gene with a healthy copy of the gene
- Inactivating a disease-causing gene that is not functioning properly
- Introducing a new or modified gene into the body to help treat a disease
Gene therapy products are being studied to treat diseases including cancer, genetic diseases, and infectious diseases.
There are a variety of types of gene therapy products, including:
- Plasmid DNA: Circular DNA molecules can be genetically engineered to carry therapeutic genes into human cells.
- Viral vectors: Viruses have a natural ability to deliver genetic material into cells, and therefore some gene therapy products are derived from viruses. Once viruses have been modified to remove their ability to cause infectious disease, these modified viruses can be used as vectors (vehicles) to carry therapeutic genes into human cells.
- Bacterial vectors: Bacteria can be modified to prevent them from causing infectious disease and then used as vectors (vehicles) to carry therapeutic genes into human tissues.
- Human gene editing technology: The goals of gene editing are to disrupt harmful genes or to repair mutated genes.
- Patient-derived cellular gene therapy products: Cells are removed from the patient, genetically modified (often using a viral vector) and then returned to the patient.
From the time Boveri observed that chromosomal changes are a feature of cancer, it has been thought to be a disease caused primarily by alterations in the genome of the affected cells. Today, the notion of cancer being a consequence of genetic alterations, is almost intuitive and the advances in molecular biology and genomics have given us many tools to understand and possibly to combat cancer. Since science has always existed in a continuum, the genetic alterations in cancer have to be understood in the context of cellular organization, differentiation, tissue organization host response and susceptibility angiogenesis etc. The properties that are taken to typify cancer cells are also present in normal cells. These include cell division, migration and even invasion. However what marks out cancer cells is dysregulation and inappropriate expression of these attributes. Typically the genetic alterations in cancer can be said to include three major types of genes, oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and genes that preserve the integrity of the genome. It must be kept in mind that cancer is a multi-step process and several genetic alterations are required for a full blown cancer phenotype.
Precision Nutrition is a relatively new term that can be considered as a way to use information we continue to learn about our genomics in order to customise nutritional advice. Progress in scientific and medical research has led to understanding our biology as a whole system, known as the -omics era. The knowledge we can apply from -omics technology, together with understanding of nutrient-gene interactions has developed a field known as Nutritional Genomics.
At present, the nutritional genomic relationship is made up of two related but distinct fields namely, Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics. Nutrigenomics focuses on how diet affects gene expression. Nutrigenetics focuses on how the gene variants in our DNA influences our response to nutients i.e. how our genes determine the effects what our food has on us. Both aim to elucidate how the genome interacts with nutrition to influence genotype to optimise health through the application of personalised and precision nutrition.
Bioinformatics is a field of computational science that has to do with the analysis of sequences of biological molecules. It usually refers to genes, DNA, RNA, or protein, and is particularly useful in comparing genes and other sequences in proteins and other sequences within an organism or between organisms, looking at evolutionary relationships between organisms, and using the patterns that exist across DNA and protein sequences to figure out what their function is. You can think about bioinformatics as essentially the linguistics part of genetics. That is, the linguistics people are looking at patterns in language, and that's what bioinformatics people do--looking for patterns within sequences of DNA or protein.
- Creation of databases
- Development of algorithms and statistics
- Analysis of data and interpretation
Genome instability is mainly due to sporadic replication or repair errors but can also take place in response to developmental or environmental signals, as occurs in meiosis, and antigen receptor and immunoglobulin gene diversification in T and B cells. Genomes are transmitted faithfully from dividing cells to their offspring. Changes that occur during DNA repair, chromosome duplication, and transmission or via recombination provide a natural source of genetic variation. They occur at low frequency because of the intrinsic variable nature of genomes, which we refer to as genome instability. However, genome instability can be enhanced by exposure to external genotoxic agents or as the result of cellular pathologies.
Molecular Pharming utilizes plants to make substantial amounts of pharmaceutical substances like antibodies and vaccines. it's as same because the technique for creating Genetically Modified Crops, the synthetic introduction of genes into plants. Plant Genetics is that the study of genes, hereditary variety, and genetics, particularly in Plants. It is, for the foremost part, considered a field of biology and botany; however, it crosses much of the time with numerous other life sciences and is firmly connected with the investigation of knowledge frameworks. In agriculture, a plant's qualities impact the development of the plant, as they're parts of its chromosomes and are acquired through sexual propagation. There are two alternative ways by which qualities are often changed: the gene gun method strategy and therefore the agrobacterium technique. The gene gun method technique is especially helpful in changing monocot species like corn and rice and is otherwise called biolistic. The agrobacterium strategy has been effectively drilled in dicots, i.e. broadleaf plants, for instance, soybeans and tomatoes, for an extended time. It’s likewise viable in monocots like grasses, including corn and rice.
- Molecular breeding
- Marketing and societal issues in breeding
- Plant cellular organization and genetic structure
- Plant genetic resources
All children with serious disorders will benefit from genetic analysis. Virtually every disease is the result of genetic and environmental interactions—and we learn a great deal about the course and treatment of an illness once the relevant genes are identified.
Clinical genetics at Columbia Doctors is comprised of highly trained and world-renowned physicians and researchers who are committed to the proper diagnosis and treatment of children and families with complex genetic problems and birth defects. Our pediatric geneticists and inherited disease experts have produced many new insights in this field, as we treat children with disorders that have a genetic cause, including Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, early onset cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, and amino acid disorders.
- Birth defects
- Down syndrome
- Williams syndrome
Genetic disorders occur when a mutation (a harmful change to a gene, also known as a pathogenic variant) affects your genes or when you have the wrong amount of genetic material. Genes are made of DNA, which contain instructions for cell functioning and the characteristics that make you unique.
- Cystic Fibrosis
- Sickle Cell Anemia
- Huntington's Disease
- Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy
- Tay-Sachs Disease
Genetics is the scientific study of genes and heredity—of how certain qualities or traits are passed from parents to offspring as a result of changes in DNA sequence. A gene is a segment of DNA that contains instructions for building one or more molecules that help the body work. DNA is shaped like a corkscrew-twisted ladder, called a double helix. The two ladder rails are called backbones, and the rungs are pairs of four building blocks (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) called bases. The sequences of these bases provide the instructions for building molecules, most of which are proteins. Researchers estimate that humans have about 20,000 genes. All of an organism’s genetic material, including its genes and other elements that control the activity of those genes, is its genome. An organism’s entire genome is found in nearly all of its cells. In human, plant, and animal cells, the genome is housed in a structure called the nucleus. The human genome is mostly the same in all people with just small variations. For more on the human genome, visit the National Human Genome Research Institute’s About Genomics webpage.
- Chromosome and Genes
- DNA linkages
- DNA Sequencing
- Offspring Characteristics
A biomarker is a biological characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological or pathological processes, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers may be used alone or in combination to assess the health or disease state of an individual. A wide range of biomarkers are used today. Every biological system has its own specific biomarkers. Many of these biomarkers are relatively easy to measure and form part of routine medical examinations.
- Gene mutations
- Gene rearrangements.
- Extra copies of genes.
- Missing genes
- Other molecules.
It is the study of the inheritance of characteristics by children from parents. Inheritance in humans does not differ in any fundamental way from that in other organisms.
The study of human heredity occupies a central position in genetics. Much of this interest stems from a basic desire to know who humans are and why they are as they are. At a more practical level, an understanding of human heredity is of critical importance in the prediction, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases that have a genetic component. The quest to determine the genetic basis of human health has given rise to the field of medical genetics. In general, medicine has given focus and purpose to human genetics, so the terms medical genetics and human genetics are often considered synonymous.
- Familial Alzheimer's Disease.
- Familial FTD.
- Familial Prion Disease.
- Genetic Counseling.
Animal breeding is a branch of animal science that addresses the evaluation of genetic value in terms of estimated breeding value (EBV) of domestic livestock. Animals have been selected for breeding with superior EBVs in growth rate, and egg, meat, milk, or wool production, as well as other important desirable traits. Breeding animals begins with a decision to continue with a current population of animals or to replace part or all of it with new breeds or lines. Region, country, climate, management, prevalent diseases and parasites, product types, import restrictions, and history influence popularity and choice of breeds and lines. For some species and places, livestock producers used the same breeds over long periods, but in other species and places they often changed the breeds. The predominant breed for dairy cattle production is Holstein in many countries with temperate climates. Commercial egg production depends on selected lines developed from Leghorn chickens. Beef cattle, swine, and sheep producers use many breeds to adapt to regional and marketing differences.
Epigenetics is the study of the configuration and chemistry of DNA in chromosomes and changes in gene expression patterns that cannot be traced to the DNA sequence. Unlike phenotypes that are associated with mutations in the underlying DNA code, epigenetic changes involve heritable covalent modifications to chromatin structure, such as DNA methylation and histone modification. Here we highlight common epigenetic markers, the techniques used to study them, and their role in biology and human disease. DNA is stored in a highly structured complex called chromatin. Epigenetic processes control gene expression by altering chromatin structure (Figure 1). Actively transcribed genes are associated with accessible chromatin regions, while transcriptionally silent genes are found in inaccessible chromatin regions. These modifications made to DNA and proteins, which impact chromatin structure, are referred to as epigenetic markers (or marks) and subsequently inherited as they are passed on through rounds of cell division.
- DNA Methylation. DNA methylation works by adding a chemical group to DNA
- Histone modification. DNA wraps around proteins called histones
- Non-coding RNA. Your DNA is used as instructions for making coding and non-coding RNA.
Cytogenetic is the study of cell structure, area, and ability of chromosomes. It involves studying the number and presence of chromosomes (karyotyping), the physical region of chromosomal properties, and chromosomal actions in procedures such as cell division. The ordinary human cell consists of 46 chromosomes: 22 autosomal pairs, numbered 1-22 by decreasing length query, 1 array of gonosomes, or sex chromosomes.
- Human mouse somatic cell hybrids
- Chromosome abnormalities
- Tumour Cytogenetics
Immature microorganisms are undifferentiated regular cells that experience mitosis to convey more cells, which are found in multicellular living things. They are of two sorts, embryonic and grown up microorganisms. The undeveloped cell treatment was seen to be a lifesaving treatment for the patients with solid tumours and blood issue. Essential microorganisms are often obtained from the umbilical string after new-born’s first experience with the planet. Maybe they can moreover be gotten from periphery blood and bone marrow. As demonstrated by the reports, in US the availability of undifferentiated cell treatment was $15.2 million of each 2007 and $16.5 million of each 2008 and it is surveyed to reach $11 billion by 2020.
Undifferentiated creature treatment is the strategy for using undeveloped cells for with respect to and furthermore keeping any disease or strife. Bone marrow transplantation is the most by and large used youthful microorganism treatment, anyway some undeveloped cell treatment using umbilical string bloods are similarly for all intents and purposes.
- Somatic Cell Reprogramming
- Tissue Regeneration
- Vascular Regeneration
- Articular Cartilage Tissue 211 Engineering
- Oral Bone Reconstruction
Forensic genetics in the department of genetics that deals with the software of genetic know-how to criminal issues and felony proceedings. Forensic genetics is also a branch of forensic medication that offers greater extensively with the software of medical knowledge to prison matters.
Forensic genetics today has a tendency to conjure up DNA. However, even the term "DNA fingerprinting" is like older methods of police identification. Forensic genetics isn't a new field. Long earlier than the technology of DNA fingerprinting, blood grouping, HLA typing and other assessments of genetic markers in blood were finished to try to determine who did it (and, greater often, who did no longer do it).
- DNA Fingerprinting
- Evaluation and presentation of DNA evidence
- Kinship testing
- Lineage markers
Neurogenetics studies the role of genetics in nervous system development and function. This recognizes neural features like phenotypes (i.e., observable or non-measurable manifestations of an individual's genetic make-up) and is mainly based on the fact. Individuals nervous systems are belonging to the same species, may not be the same. As the name implies, it draws elements from both neuroscience and genetics research, concentrating especially on how its transmitted characteristics influence the ordering that an organism bears. Mutations can have a good range of effects on the individual's quality of life during this genetic sequence. In the context of neurogenetics, neurological diseases, behaviour, and personality are all studied. In the mid to late 1900s, the field of neurogenetics emerged with developments and closely following advances made in the technologies available.
- Behavioral neurogenetics
- Cross-species gene conservation
- Neural development
- Cognitive genomics
- Computational Neurogenetic Modeling